A3. Glossary, index - LUPMISManual

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Annexes 1-10

Annex 3: Glossary, Abbreviations, Index

When exploring or using LUPMIS, it may be helpful to become familiar with the following terms and abbreviations:

API: Application Programming Interface, here Maps-API

ArcView / ArcGIS: Commercial GIS software, by ESRI

Attributes: Characteristics of a geographic feature described by numbers, characters, and images, typically stored in a tabular format and linked to the feature by an identifier; column in a database table. Attribute data are usually alphanumeric (letters or numbers).

Bitmap: Format to store images, here in particular aerial photographs and satellite images, in forms of rasters with pixels, e.g. JPG, TIF, ECW, BMP, etc

Calibration: Process of conversion to standard, here conversion of geographical data to GIS standard (WGS 84)

CBD: Central Business District

Census data: The Government of Ghana conducts a survey of the population every ten years and publishes detailed description of subgroups within the overall population

Census Tools: Set of utilities ('tools') to allow retrieval of census data, including population statistics, administrative structure, production figures etc; see Chapter 8.6

Centroid: The point that may be considered the center of a polygon. There are different ways to calculate the center point.

CMS: Content Management System, software system for content management

Corner: Specific vertex (see there) at the begin / end of a line or polygon

Datum: Model of the shape of the earth (reference ellipsoid) to define a geographic coordinate system; see Annex 2.2

DBMS: Database Management System, here synonymous with RDBMS (see DBMS component of LUPMIS: Permit Database)

Desaster recovery: Procedure to restore system (software and/or data), after complete or partial breakdown; see
Chapter 8.9.4.e

DEM: Digital elevation model: Raster based elevation model, with z representing the altitude or other descriptive data, such as rainfall; see Chapters  5.5 and  6.8

Demographic: Data characteristics of human population, such as size, growth, density, distribution etc

Detail map: Inset map showing part of the of the area of interest (‘main map’) in more detail, i.e. in a larger scale (see  
Chapter 6.3.4 for the procedure to insert detail map)

DOP: Dilution of Precision, error assessment of GPS; see
part A of Chapter 5.1.6

Drawing Tools: Set of utilities ('tools') to enable accurate drawing, like - and in excess of - CAD functionalities; add-on to Map Maker, developed for the particular needs of TCPD to formulate Local Plans; see Chapter 8.2

Estate: Working term for subcomponent (part) of Local Plan

File name standards: Important part of standardization within an information system and to ensure compatibility and exchange with other information systems (e.g. LUPMIS internally as well as externally to GELIS, CSAU, PPS etc); for file name standards of images see Annex 10.3 and in LUPMIS at Processing > Utilities > Photo / topo coverage

FTP: File Transfer Protocol, standard protocol to transfer files through the internet, here recommended: FileZilla

GE: Google Earth, in LUPMIS supported for map retrieval

Geocoding: GIS component of a structured street naming database; see Chapter 7.7.4

Georectification: Calibration of geographical data to a projection, for use at the GIS; see example in Chapter 5.3.3

GIS: Geographical Information System

Google Maps: Internet-based map display, strongly supported by LUPMIS; see Chapter

GPS: Global Positioning System

Graticule: Grid on maps, showing the latitude and longitude; see also  Chapter 6.5

Grid: Rectanglar (or almost rectangular) frame on maps, showing coordinates (here: UTM); see also  Chapter 6.5

GRN: Geodetic Reference Network

ICT: Information and Communication Technology

IGF: Internally Generated Funds (with its spatial components handled by LUPMIS Revenue Tools; see
Chapter 8.6

Index map: Overview map showing the areas of individual images, photographs or topo maps; see Chapter to create an index in LUPMIS and  Chapter 3.7 for the procedure to create a grid manually in Map Maker

IS: Information System   

Island: Area (polygon), which is completely surrounded by one other unit (polygon); see
Chapters 2.14 and 2.15

ITRF: International Terrestrial Reference Frame

LAN: Local Area Network, cabled computer network; for LUPMIS installation in LAN see Chapter Annex 1.1.b

Land evaluation: Assessment of the suitability of land for a particular land use; see Chapter 4.5

LAP: Land Administration Project (see LAP homepage)

Layer: Geographical referenced subset of information in a GIS, mostly limited to one theme (topic)

Line: A level of spatial measurement referring to a one-dimensional defined object having a length and direction and connecting at least two points, e.g. roads, telecommunication lines, rivers etc

LIS: Land Information System

Line map: Term used by the Survey Department to describe vector map, not a technical term

Local Plan: Detailed plan of small, urban area, earlier called 'Sector Layout', including all parcels and their permitted use; see Chapter 8.1.1 for 3-tier planning system chart with role of Local Plans and Chapter 8.1.2 for workflow

Location map: Overview map of smaller scale with indication of the area of interest (‘main map’); see Chapter 6.3.3 for the procedure to insert overview map

LUPM: Land Use Planning & Management (Project)

Map: Graphic representation of a part of the whole of the Earth's surface using signs and symbols or photographic images at an established scale

Map Maker: GIS software of choice for TCPD, to perform GIS for land use planning; 'backbone' of LUPMIS-GIS functionality, described in this Manual Chapters 1-6 (see Map Maker homepage), not to be confused with Google Map Maker

Map layer: Refers to the various 'overlays' of data, each of which normally deals with one thematic topic. Layers can be viewed individually or in combination with other layers.
Marginalia: Graphical or text features beside the map on a map sheet, including legend, title, scale bar etc

Metadata: Data about data. This often includes the data's source, accuracy, data type, projection, date of origination and other general descriptions

Modeling: Applying structured rules and procedures to one or more spatial database overlays to conduct spatial and/or network analysis to derive new information to aid in problem solving and planning. It also refers to a process of simulation, prediction and description that involves changing the parameters and generating new results or prediction of outcomes to what-if scenarios.

MTDP: Medium Term Development Plan

Mosaic: Composition of different geographically referenced images

Neighbourhood: Working term for subcomponent (part) of Structure Plan; can consist of one or more Local Plan areas

NSA: Network Storage Appliance Server

OpenStreetMap: Internet-based map display, strongly supported by LUPMIS; see Chapter

Overlay: The ability to superimpose graphically one map on another and display the result

PDA: Personal Digital Assistant, ‘pocket PC’

Permit Tools: Set of utilities ('tools') to manage all planning-/development-permit data for their entry, monitoring, tracking, mapping, inventory; see Chapter 8.5

PGIS: Participatory GIS

PHP: Programming language for dynamic web pages

PND: Portable Navigation Device

Point: A single location in space. Many different natural or man-made features are modeled as points in a spatial database.

Polygon: A two-dimensional figure with three or more sides that represents an area on a map. Many different natural or man-made features are typically represented by polygons in a spatial database.

Printing Tools: Set of utilities ('tools') to enable standardized and easy print of maps and other data from LUPMIS; add-on to Map Maker, developed for the particular needs of TCPD; see Chapter 8.4

Processing Tools: Set of utilities ('tools') to process vector or raster data after their first digitization to comply with LUPMIS standards and to enable LUPMIS output; see
Chapter 8.3

Project: here at GIS (Map Maker): Definition of references to layers, projection, view and styles, which can be saved; see Chapter 1.6

Projection: Transfer of the three dimensions of the earth to a two-dimensional map format

QA: Quality assurance, externally executed, also called ‘total QC’

QC: Quality control, internally executed, to be carried out after each individual step of processing and at the end to clear a data set for release; see Chapter

QGIS: Open-source based GIS, strongly supported by LUPMIS; see Chapters and etc

Query: A logical search specification finding spatial features with linked records that contain matching geographic and/or non-graphic attributes. Once selected, additional operations can be performed such as drawing them, listing with their attributes or summarizing attribute values.

RAS: Remote Access Service, VPN technology

Raster map: Map consisting of pixels in rows and columns; see
Chapter 5.3.1and Annex 2

RDBMS: Relational Database Management System, synonymous with DBMS

Revenue Tools: Set of utilities ('tools') to manage all revenue data of property and business tax for their entry, monitoring, tracking, mapping, inventory; see Chapter 8.7

Scale: The ratio between map distance and real distance, where the map distance is usually represented as 1. For example, a map scale of 1:2500 means that one unit of measure on the map equals 2500 of the same unit on the Earth.

SDF, Spatial Development Framework: Indicative plan of districts, municipalities, metropolitan authority areas or regions, showing the expected development over a given time period, including the present and future proposed major land uses and transportation networks and the boundaries of areas of special planning concern along with the direction of further growth; see Chapter 8.1.1 for 3-tier planning system chart with role of SDFs

Sector Layout: Deprecated term for maps of 'Local Plans', in the past, at 1:2500 scale; for references see under 'Local Plan' above

SMD: Survey & Mapping Division (previously: Survey Department)

Spatial: In relation to space or geographical extension: Any data which can be expressed in its appearance on the ground, with coordinates. This common-sense use of the word is used in such a way throughout the entire GIS terminology, but contradicts to the specific, academic definition of the term in use by some British land use planners

Spatial analsyis: Study of geographic features and the relationships between them

SQL: Standard query language, database language

Standards: Essential and crucial component of any information system; see Annex 10.1 and 'File name standards' above on this page

Structure Plan: Plan for urban areas and their peripheries, showing present and proposed future development over a given time period and including major land uses, major roads, waterways and railway lines and all areas of special planning concern or interest, including conservation areas and areas of special ecological and environmental concern; see Chapter 8.1.1 for 3-tier planning system chart with role of Structure Plans

SubUPN: Subunit of UPN (see UPN below), unique identifier of buildings and properties for entire Ghana, if there is more than 1 building/property on a parcel; see Chapter 8.3.1.b and all other references for UPN

TCPD: Town & Country Planning Department; owner of LUPMIS

TIN: Triangulated irregular network (also DEM: Digital elevation model): Series of triangular, 3D polygons, each defined by 3 nodes with x, y, z values.

Topography: The features of the actual surface of the Earth considered collectively according to their form, such as grassland, built-up areas, forest etc. A single feature, such as one mountain or one valley, is called a topographic feature

Topology: here at GIS: Internal structure of vector map, as handled by the GIS software, including their linkage to external data files

UPN: Unique Parcel Number, unique identifier of parcels for entire Ghana; see Chapter 8.3.1 for process, Chapter 8.3.1.a for concept and Chapter 7.7.1 (see also SubUPN above for buildings, properties)

Vector map: All geographically referenced data, which are expressed with their coordinates (x,y) in a given coordinate system, in most cases limited to polygons, lines, points

Vertex: Point with x-y coordinates, which defines the shape of a line or polygon

VPN: Virtual Private Network

WAN: Wide Area Network, often replaced by VPN technology

WGS 84: World Geodetic System 1984, standard datum and ellipsoid definition; see
Annex 2.2


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